Dating the origin of the ccr5 delta32 mature dating newcastle
In addition, smallpox had a high case fatality rate of ≈30% (29, 30).
Thus, the Black Death and Great Plague pandemics in Europe represent strong bouts of episodic selection, whereas ongoing smallpox epidemics represent weaker, but more continuous selection.
deletion allele together indicate that it has been intensely selected in Europe.
Although the allele confers resistance against HIV-1, HIV has not existed in the human population long enough to account for this selective pressure.
This allele provides almost complete resistance to HIV-1 in the homozygous state (4, 7, 12) and partial resistance with slower disease progression in the heterozygous state (4, 5, 8, 12).
Interference with the expression of the CCR5 receptor also appears to have promise in the treatment of HIV (13).
Our model incorporated the temporal patterns of smallpox and plague, respectively.The intermittent nature of plague epidemics is caused, at least in part, by indirect transmission from a rodent reservoir via fleas (27).By comparison, smallpox was transmitted directly between humans, resulting in more continuous transmission.Plague mortality was also assumed to affect all ages equally, consistent with historical accounts (22, 23).
To assess selection generated by smallpox, we used the age distribution of smallpox burials in York between 17 (25) to parameterize smallpox mortality in the different age classes.The CCR5 chemokine receptor is fundamental to establishing HIV-1 infection.