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viii, in "Museum Italicum", II, 567), i.e., on certain great feasts, bishops of superior rank say Mass on the altar of the Lateran Basilica. In Austria, Spain, and Portugal the biretta is usually imposed by the sovereign or civil ruler.

Et tamen omnes sunt canonici patriarchalis basilicæ Lateranensis" ("De Ecclesiâ Lateranensi", C. If the creation of a cardinal takes place outside of Italy, the scarlet zucchetta is sent him by one of the pope's (Noble Guards), and the scarlet biretta by a special ablegate.

Duchesne, "Les tîtres presbytéraux et les diacones", in "Mélanges d'archæol. Zettinger, "Die ältesten Nachrichten über Baptisterien der Stadt Rom", in "Römische Quartalschrift", XIX, 326 sqq.). They also followed the custom, widespread in the early medieval period, of dealing with the important questions in synodal meetings. Only, at whatever time such publication takes place, the cardinals so created rank in seniority according to the date of their original announcement as reserved and precede all those created after that time (P. Kirsch, "Die Reservatio in petto bei der Kardinalscreation", in "Archiv. The share of the cardinals in the government of the Church is exercised partly in the consistories, partly in the curial offices () or ordinary.

Duchesne, I, 249 sqq.): "Hic [Simplicius] constituit ad sanctum Petrum apostolum et ad sanctum Laurentium martyrem ebdomadias, ut presbyteri manerent, propter penitentes et baptismum: regio III ad sanctum Laurentium, regio prima ad sanctum Paulum, regio VI vel septima ad sanctum Petrum" (cf. In the "Commentarius electionis Gregorii VII" the electors are said to be "Romanæ ecclesiæ cardinales clerici, acoliti, subdiaconi, diaconi, presbyteri" (Jaffé, Bibliotheca Rer. In the course of time and according as the papal headship of the Church manifested itself more and more, the volume of ecclesiastical and temporal business increased greatly at Rome, in consequence of which the popes called in neighbouring bishops to represent them at episcopal functions and to aid them with their counsel. The publication of the names may, in given circumstances, be made at a much later date. It is the duty of the cardinals to assist the pope at the chief liturgical services known as de electione, I, 6; Council of Trent, Sess. Rom.", V, 604 sqq.; Innocent X, "Cum juxta", 19 Feb., 1646, in "Bullar. Similarly, they would lose all the benefices possessed by them (Council of Trent, Sess. The "suburbicarian" bishops, however, by ancient custom reside at Rome.

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Peter, in the Lateran Basilica, by one of the seven cardinal-bishops in weekly service at which Mass also the "Gloria in Excelsis" should be sung. They are called for the purpose of giving the red hat to new cardinals, the solemn conclusion of canonizations, and public audiences to sovereigns and their ambassadors. As already described, it was in them that during the Middle Ages were heard and decided the numberless lawsuits and judicial matters that came before the Apostolic See. Luchaire, "Le tribunal d'Innocent III", in "Séances et travaux de l'Acad. With the transfer of their judicial attributes to the great curial offices, especially the Rota and the Roman Congregations, consistories became less frequent. The following matters are dealt with in them, and call for the counsel of the cardinals: the creation, i.e. This is the sense of the "Liber Pontificalis" when it says (ed. Cardinal-subdeacons are often mentioned, and once even cardinal-acolytes. Creation of cardinals with publication of their names in his testament, but this creation never went into effect. from the end of the Western Schism, during which there were many cardinals created by the contending popes, it became customary for the pope to create cardinals without declaring their names (. Eubel, "Zur Kardinalsernennung des Dominicus Capranica", in "Röm. By virtue of canonical obedience the pope could compel an unwilling person to accept the cardinalitial dignity. But the cardinal must swear that he will defend conscientiously the papal Bulls concerning non-alienation of the possessions of the Roman Church, nepotism, and papal elections, likewise his own cardinalitial dignity. 2, X, de clerico non residente, III, 4; Leo X, "Supernæ", 5 May, 1514, § 28, in "Bullar. It is otherwise with foreign bishops created cardinals; they retain their dioceses and are not obliged to reside at Rome. Moreover, in virtue of a papal provision as old as the reign of Pope Simplicius (468-83), these cardinal-priests were wont to conduct Divine service at the three principal cemetery churches (St. To each of these four churches were assigned seven cardinals; the latter were therefore twenty-eight in number. Since, according to the foregoing, the name of "cardinal" was linked with participation and co-operation in the papal Mass, or in ecclesiastical services at the principal papal churches of Rome it need not surprise us that, by reason of analogous participation in these services, other Roman ecclesiastics, from the deacons downwards, came to bear the title of cardinal. XV, "Decet", 12 March, 1621, in "Bullarium Romanum", XII, 663 sq.). Wahrmund, "Ueber die kirchliche Zulässigkeit der Rekusation der übertragenen Kardinalswürde", in "Archiv f. Kirchenrecht", LXVII, 3 sqq.) The oath taken by the cardinals is quite similar to that taken by bishops. The violation of this law entails grave penalties, even the loss of the cardinalitial dignity (C. Though the number of cardinal-bishops has always been seven, their particular sees have not shared the same fixity. As a rule, however, they were fewer; after the thirteenth century their number often sank considerably. These allocutions are meant for the entire Church and are therefore published in ecclesiastical organs. In the earliest times the government of the Roman Church was taken over by the presbyterium or presbyteral clergy, as we know from a letter of that body addressed to St. Abhandlungen Karl von Weizsäcker gewidmet", Tübingen, 1892, I sqq.). After the full development of the authority of the College of Cardinals, as above described, the latter took charge and exercised its power in very many ways; some canonists went so far as to maintain that during the vacancy of the Apostolic See the College of Cardinals possessed the fullness of the papal prerogative.

That these bishops also received the name of is intelligible enough after what has been said. In the Middle Ages, therefore, the cardinals should have numbered fifty-three or fifty-four. Späthen, "Giraldus Cambrensis und Thomas von Evesham über die von ihnen an der Kurie geführten Prozesse" in "Neues Archiv d. Generally, however, the consistory is called only to inform the cardinals by a so-called allocution of the status of important ecclesiastico-political matters, or to make known the opinion of the pope. Harnack, "Die Briefe des römischen Klerus aus der Zeit der Sedisvacanz im Jahr 250" in "Theolog.Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. They could, however, in case of a grave danger menacing the Church, provide by an absolute majority and secret vote for the necessary ways and means to meet the situation, issue urgent temporary ordinances for particular dioceses, and order the public recitation of prayers.

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